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If all you want are the data from such a simulation, it's probably far easier to download a program based on Geant4 than to go to all the effort to build Geant4 and its libraries, and then design and build a program of your own. Of course if your intent is to learn how to program Geant4, then another program is no substitute. But the programs below are open-source and their code can serve as additional examples.
For example, the learning curve for using G4beamline is considerably shorter than for writing a C++ program using Geant4 -- it can do this in four lines of description. It implements a virtualdetector that does precisely what you want (and Peter suggested): it samples the track when it enters the volume of the virtualdetector and writes the data to an NTuple (Root or ASCII file). With two more lines of description, G4beamline can do the same thing with a block of any common material between source and virtualdetector, so you can quickly and easily determine both multiple scattering and energy loss in various materials with various thicknesses, etc. With one more line you can define your own uncommon material.
G4beamline is freely available; I am its primary author. http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com
Gate is another such program that can probably do this. http://opengatecollaboration.healthgrid.org/
BDSIM is another such program that can probably do this. http://www.pp.rhul.ac.uk/~malton/bdsim/bdsim.html
There may well be other such programs. They are all far more general than your problem needs.